The shoulder’s neutral position is with the upper arm hanging down by the side of the body, with the elbow near the side of the body. Awkward postures of the shoulder include elevating the arm in front (shoulder flexion greater than 45 degrees) or to the side of the body (shoulder abduction greater than 45 degrees).
Defined by Matheson as a low-level work position with one’s back upright, knees and hips flexed, and buttocks adjacent to heels.
static neck positioning
Defined by Matheson as the functional task of maintaining one’s gaze in primarily one direction over time. Typically associated with “prolonged tolerance to work requiring looking down,” e.g. reading, writing, typing, or using an adding machine. Functional tolerance in this area addresses how long a worker can continue that activity (albeit with very brief breaks to look around, shrug shoulders, etc.), before he or she must take a significant (greater than 10 minutes) break from that activity.
Defined by Matheson as the physical task of standing primarily in one place. Allows for the individual to move slightly, within a one-meter circumference. Examples of static standing jobs include grocery cashier, casino card-game dealer, and highway toll taker. Functional tolerance in this area addresses how long a worker can continue that activity before he or she must take a significant (greater than 10 minutes) break to sit, lie down, or walk around.
Defined by the Revised Handbook for Analyzing Jobs as bending body downward and forward by bending spine at the waist, requiring full use of the lower extremities and back muscles. In Part A of “Selected Characteristics of Occupations Defined” in the revised Dictionary of Occupational Titles, the rating for the stooping component appears fourth in the first physical demand column under the vertical heading “St.”
Defined by Matheson as bending forward at the waist. Mild = < 30 degrees, moderate = 30 to 45 degrees, severe/extreme = > 45 degrees.
Defined by the Revised Handbook for Analyzing Jobs as having five levels: sedentary, light, medium, heavy, and very heavy. Most jobs require workers to expend energy to some extent. The amount can be affected by a worker’s body position and the frequency of the repetition of a task.
Defined by Matheson as the conscious or subconscious tendency of an individual to underrate his or her abilities and/or overstate his or her limitations. Symptom magnification is measured through assessment of observed functional performance, as compared to a client’s subjective reports of the limitations caused by his or her symptoms. It does not imply intent. This concept is based on Dr. Leonard Matheson’s original term, “symptom magnification syndrome.” While subjective reports of persons exhibiting symptom magnification should certainly not be ignored, they should be considered with caution. In such instances, significantly more weight should be placed upon objective findings and test results than upon a person’s subjective reports or estimates of ability. (Kyi, Matheson, 1997)
A systems approach to safety and health management means a comprehensive program by the employer that addresses workplace processes, operations, and conditions as interdependent systems in order to identify and eliminate or reduce all types of hazards to employees.