The neutral posture of the back is standing straight to allow the spine to form its natural curve. Awkward back postures include mild forward bending (20 to 45 degrees back flexion), severe forward bending (greater than 45 degrees back flexion), bending backward (hyperextension greater than 10 degrees), bending to either side (lateral bending greater than 20 degrees), and twisting the back.
Defined by the Revised Handbook for Analyzing Jobs as maintaining body equilibrium to prevent falling when walking, standing, crouching, or running on narrow, slippery, or erratically moving surfaces; or maintaining body equilibrium when performing gymnastic feats. In Part A of “Selected Characteristics of Occupations Defined” in the revised Dictionary of Occupational Titles, the rating for the balancing component appears third in the first physical demand column under the vertical heading “Ba.”
The shortening of a joint, as defined by Matheson. Can refer to bending at the waist, bending at one’s elbow, bending one’s knee, etc.